In our first piece on food waste, we established that it’s a major global problem, one soured by the fact that millions face hunger and a rising cost of groceries. Luckily, there are many initiatives, from public health campaigns, startups, and social media groups seeing great success in the mission to end food waste.

For grocers and food producers, reducing waste can be challenging not only because of sell-by and expiry dates, but the maneuvering required to get unsold food out to where it’s needed. In recent years, a variety of businesses have stepped in to fill this need. Denmark-based Too Good To Go and Toronto-based company Flashfood connect users (via their apps) with surplus food at local grocers and restaurants, and offer options like “surprise bags” and discounted food close to its sell-by date. In the UK, Oddbox works with farms to identify produce at risk of going to waste—largely due to its odd shape—and puts together subscription or pickup boxes for nearby customers.

Grocers are also making changes, with Toronto-area chain Longo’s already hitting a target of more than 75% food waste reduction, by utilizing services like Too Good to Go, upcycling unsold ingredients, and using various metrics to gauge demand, to ensure they only supply what will be bought and used. Costco Canada works with more than 400 local organizations to donate both non-perishable and perishable goods to places in need, and at some facilities, food waste is used to create compost and fertilizer that is then sent to local farms.

While activities are going on across many industries, Canada’s National Zero Waste Council found that cohesion is needed to tackle food waste in a more significant way. After reviewing input from hundreds of stakeholders, the Council created a Food Waste Pyramid, ranking steps toward reducing food waste in the country; prevention came out on top.

The Council states that a national target is needed so that food producers, stores, and municipalities can have a framework to work from, since currently, waste reduction efforts vary widely. Another major step identified is reducing confusion over food labels, so consumers can better discern between “sell by”, “best before” and so on. This would not only reduce waste at the household level, but make it easier for suppliers to move unsold perishable products to where they’re needed.

Of course, amidst larger structural change, individuals play an important role, as we know food waste at the household level is significant. A poll from the Canadian Centre for Food Integrity found individual consumers feel they’re “most responsible” (at 59%), for reducing food waste, closely followed by restaurants and grocery stores. With this in mind, a number of efforts target consumer-to-consumer waste reduction, such as Facebook groups like Buy Nothing, which facilitate swaps of used or surplus items, including food.

Individuals can also reduce food waste by being more judicious when grocery shopping and not over-buying. Cooking at home rather than ordering in, freezing or better preserving produce in your fridge, and also composting when necessary—and properly—is important. If you have an at-home garden, you can also use food scraps to create compost or enrich soil. Making use of local food banks and community fridges to donate unused food is also a great option.

Amidst efforts to bring the circular economy into our everyday lives, food offers many options; with so many people hungry, there’s more reason than ever to make sure nothing goes to waste.